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We are primarily concerned with the environment and pollution of water. We provide chemicals for treatment of wastewater, sludges, raw water, boiler water, cooling water, and swimming pool.

The Principle of Water Treatment Part 2

In our part 1, we had covered the common environmental pollution jargon and the principle objective of wastewater treatment (WWT). In this issue we will look at a typical WWT.
In a typical wastewater treatment process, optimum dosing of the appropriate chemicals is one of the main criteria. When there is an insufficient dosing of chemicals this may result in wastewater being untreated and at the same time, enhance pollution in the wastewater. Overdosing of chemicals on the other hand will result in more sludge volume and higher treatment cost.

Jar Test is one of the most commonly used method employed by expert to determine the types and dosages of chemicals required for proper treatment of wastewater and also used as guideline to set the dosing rates of chemicals.

The raw wastewater flows into the equalization tank then into the primary process (Physical Chemical Treatment). This process will normally involved in two chemicals. A coagulant, usually an inorganic substance, is used to destabilize the electrostatic repulsive forces which tend to keep colloidal and soluble suspension particles apart and prevent them from gathering together.

The other chemical, the flocculant, usually organic in nature, must be added to combine the particles into bigger flocs, which can then be more easily floated or settled. In a well-designed system there should have proper flowrate that allows the coagulant to have sufficient time to destabilize the repulsive forces before the flocculant is added.

At the aeration (Biological Treatment) basin, organic matter acts as food supply for bacteria to metabolize the waste solids resulting in absorbing oxygen (BOD) and releasing CO2. The process removes organic matter from solution by synthesis into microbial cells. It is further transferred to a clarifier for separation of the sludge and effluent. The sludge is pollutants converted into concentrated form. This sludge has to be further treated in order to prevent further pollution of waterways. The degree of solid removal will depend on the character of the raw wastewater and the treating chemical.

The basic aim of sludge treatment is to reduce the volume and destroy or stabilize sludge solids before final disposal.

The chlorination of water and wastewater is to disinfect & destroy Pathogens and control microorganisms. Chlorine is also used for oxidation. As an oxidant it is used in iron and manganese removal, destruction of taste and odor compounds.

In general when the water appeared to be cloudy, is because there are many suspended particles floating & the electrical repulsive charge is actually holding the particles in suspension. And the processes known as coagulation will combine small particles including colloidal particles into larger bodies by destabilization.

In our part 3, we will look at our environmental regulation & control.

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